Yazd is the capital of Yazd Province, IRAN. The city is located 270 km southeast of Esfahan. The population is about 530,000. it is currently 15th largest city in IRAN. Since 2017, the historical city of Yazd is recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
Because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd has a unique Persian architecture. It is nicknamed the “City of Windcatchers” from its many examples. It is also very well known for its Zoroastrian fire temples, ab anbars (cisterns). qanats (underground channels), yakhchals (coolers), Persian handicrafts, handwoven cloth (Persian termeh), silk weaving. Persian Cotton Candy, and its time-honored confectioneries.
Yazd is also known as City of Bicycles. because of its old history of bike riders, and the highest amount of bicycle per capita in IRAN.
The name is derived from Yazdegerd I, a Sassanid ruler of Persia. The city was definitely a Zoroastrian center during Sassanid times. The word yazd means God.
In 1272 it was visited by Marco Polo, who remarked on the city’s fine silk-weaving industry. In the book The Travels of Marco Polo, he described Yazd in the following way:
Yazd briefly served as the capital of the Muzaffarid Dynasty in the fourteenth century. The Friday (or Congregation) mosque, arguably the city’s greatest architectural landmark. as well as other important buildings, date to this period.
One of the notable things about Yazd is its family-centered culture.
Yazd is an important centre of Persian architecture. Because of its climate, it has one of the largest networks of qanats in the world. Yazdi qanat makers are considered the most skilled in IRAN.
To deal with the extremely hot summers, many old buildings in Yazd have magnificent wind towers and large underground areas.
The city is also home to prime examples of yakhchals. which were used to store ice retrieved from glaciers in the nearby mountains. Yazd is also one of the largest cities built almost entirely out of adobe.
Yazd’s heritage as a center of Zoroastrianism is also important. There is a Tower of Silence on the outskirts, and the city has an ateshkadeh. which holds a fire that has been kept alight continuously since 470 AD. Zoroastrians make up a significant minority of the population, around 20,000–40,000 or 5 to 10 percent.
Built in 12th century and still in use, Jame Mosque of Yazd is an example of the finest Persian mosaics and excellent architecture. Its minarets are the highest in the country.
Yazd has a hot desert climate. It is the driest major city in IRAN, with a yearly precipitation amount of 49 millimetres. which is also a hot city north of the Persian Gulf coast. with summer temperatures frequently about 40 °C in blazing sunshine with no humidity.
In the winter, the days remain mild and sunny. but in the morning the thin air and low cloudiness cause cold temperatures that can sometimes fall well below 0 °C.
There are plenty of nice places to see for instance:
- Masjid-e Jame(Friday Mosque)
- Yazd Water Museum
- Takyeh Amir Chakhmagh(Amir Chakhmagh Complex)
- Cistern of Fatemeh-ye-Golshan
- Amir Chakhmagh Mosque(Old Mosque)
- Market Square Clock
- Dakhmeh(Zoroastrian Towers of Silence)
- Alexander’s Prison
- Dowlat Abad Gardens.
- Museum of Zoroastrians History and Culture
- Pahlevanpour Garden
- Sar-Yazd Fortress
- Chak Chak
- Narin Castle